Jin Dynasty later
The Jin, founded by Wanyan Aguda (known as Emperor Taizu), was a regime dominated by the Nüzhen people. Its capital was first in the Huining Prefecture (now Baicheng, south of Acheng, Heilongjiang Province), then in Yanjing (now Beijing), and lastly, in Bianjing (present-day Kaifeng, Henan Province).
The ancestors of the Nuzhen had first lived in the Changbai Mountains and the Helongjiang valley northeast of China.The name "Nüzhen" did not appear in historical records until the Five Dynasties period when it was under the control of the Khitan. After its Wanyan tribe established a tribal union, all its tribes quickly got unified. In 1114, Wanyan Aguda, the leader of the Nüzhens, performed a ritual with his armies on the bank of the Lailiu River (present-day Jianlalin River between Heilongjiang and Jilin) and declared war on the Liao. After his victories in Ningjiang and Chuhedian, Aguda assumed the imperial title in 1115. He named his regime the Jin. Jin unified Northern Song to conquer the Liao.After winning a decisive victory in the battle of Hubudagang, the Jin carried out its plan to conquer the Liao. In 1125, Liao was put an end. The Jin then turned against the Northern Song, swept southward and put an end to the Northern Song in 1127. Later the Jin waged many wars against the Southern Song, but the balance of power remained the same.
The Jin lasted for 120 years. At its height, it had a population of 44.7 million people and its territory extended as far as the Outer Xing'an Mountain in the north, the Huai River in the south, the coastline in the east, and south of Shaanxi in the west.
The Jin's political, military and economic system changed in its early and late periods. During the "tribal union" period, the premier and the union chieftains (bogile in Nüzhen) shared the power of administering different Nuzhen tribes. After the founding of the Jin Dynasty, the premier and the union chieftains were replaced by four and later five chief executives, to form the highest authority under the emperor. After conquering a number of the Liao and the Song territories during Emperor Taizong's reign, the Jin adopted some of their practices and systems.
Farming, handicrafts and commerce flourished, but different areas achieved varying degrees of social and economic development.
Although some features of traditional Nüzhen culture were inherited by the Jin, it was the Han culture that dominated the Jin society.
While the three dynasties Southern Song, Western Xia and Jin existed side by side, Jin was the strongest one. However, the rise of the Mongols changed this. Western Xia surrendered to Mongols. They joined together to attack the Jin. The Jin was ended in 1234 under the attacks by the allied Mongols and Southern Song troops.