Mausoleum of Dr. Sun Yat-sen
Dr. Sun Mausoleum
Dr. Sun Yat-sen, forefather of the Chinese revolutions, led the Chinese people against the Qing Dynasty (1644-1911 AD) in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. He is remembered as a national hero who brought China from a feudal, semi-colonial society in to a republican one. He devoted more than 40 years of his life to the cause of the liberation of the Chinese people. In his last years, his policy of uniting the Soviet Communists and the Chinese Communists proved his dedication to the sake of the country, not just simply for personal consideration. Because of which he had won world-wide praise and support. He was greatly respected by Chinese people of different parties and nationalities and was honored as 'Father of the Country' by the Nationalist Party.
Dtr. Sun Mausoleum
The construction of the mausoleum was finished completely in 1929 and it covers an area of 80,000 sq.m. Its architecture is accentuated by its splendid natural setting on the forested slopes of Zijin Mountain on the outskirts of Nanjing, its buildings made of white stone with dark blue roof tiles. These are the colors of the Republic of China and they make a beautiful contrast with the green forest surrounding the monument. The main constructions such as the Memorial Arch, Tablet Pavilion, Sacrificing Hall and Coffin Chamber on the central axis and shaped the whole mausoleum as like a bell which symbolized the spirit of Dr. Sun who contributed himself to wake up the Chinese people against oppression and aggressions. Across the square is a big stone arch with two characters 'Universal Fraternity', which was the philosophy Dr. Sun promoted.
The main entrance of the mausoleum is a three-arched gate, on which Sun Yat-sen's calligraphy is carved. It reads 'the whole world as one community'. Behind the gate is a Tablet Pavilion. A tablet with 'Burial Site of Prime Minister Dr. Sun by the Nationalist Party of China' stands inside the pavilion. The tablet is 9 m in height and 5 m in width. Looking upward, you can see the Sacrificing Hall. On the lintel of the three arched gates, is engraved 'Nationalism, Democracy and the People's livelihood' which stands for the quintessence of Dr. Sun's spirit. Above the hall is a dome-shaped roof, and in the middle of the hall is the stone-sculpture statue of Dr. Sun Yat-sen in a sitting position. Relief carvings are found around the hall on the walls. The content of the relief is about Dr. Sun's biographical experiences. The last part is the coffin chamber, which is 18 m in diameter and 11 m in height. In the middle is a white marble coffin on which a marble likeness is lying on its back. The coffin was located in the coffin pit, which is 1.6 m below the marble floor. As soon as the person who calls to pay respects enters the coffin chamber, he will lean towards the Dr. Sun's statue spontaneously. This kind of architectural layout is the first one of its kind in China.