Nanjing (Nan-ching or Nanking), meaning "southern capital", is now the capital of Jiangsu Province. Being a vigorous and attractive metropolis, it serves both as a busy port on the Yangtze River and a popular tourist city in China. Nanjing is situated in the lower reaches of the Yangtze River and is the central city of the lower Yangtze Basin. It is a renowned historical and cultural city. With an urban population of over five million, it is also the second largest commercial center in the East China region, after Shanghai. Nanjing is most famous for the cultural remnants left behind by Nanjing's long and influential history as the capital of six dynasties, the Taiping Rebellion. Tourist attractions aside, Nanjing, is a well-balanced city that currently attracts visitors for much more than just tourism.
Nanjing is a city where great political changes have taken place in modern history. Before the establishment of People's Republic of China, Nanjing was the political and cultural center of China. In 1937, the Japanese army invaded and occupied the Capital city of Republic of China - Nanjing, and carried out the systematic and brutal Nanking massacre. The total death toll could not be confirmed, since no official records were kept, and is often contested, but most estimates put the number of dead between 200,000 and 350,000. The Nanjing Massacre Memorial Hall was built in 1985 to commemorate the event.