Gansu

Great Wall, Jiayuanguan, Gansu
Abbreviated as Gan or Long, the northwest Chinese province of Gansu spans the Qinghai-Tibet, Inner Mongolia and Loess plateau in the upper reaches of the Yellow River. It covers a territory of 390000 square kilometers, with an average elevation of more than 1000 meters above sea level. Gansu has a population of 25.62 million, which embraces the Hans, Huis, Tibetans, Mongolians, Tus, Yugurs, Bonans, Dongxiangs, Kazaks, Salars, and so on. The capital is Lanzhou City.

As one of advanced areas of tourism in China, Gansu in an ideal places place to seek out the roots of the ancient civilization of the world. There are more than 1000 ancient sights attributed to different periods, including ancient grottoes, old buildings, and a rich variety of cultural relics discovered along the legendary Silk Road. The 1600-kilometer-long Silk Road of the Han and Tang dynasties unfailingly brings the visitors such places as Dunhuang Mogao Grottoes (known as a veritable world-class treasure house of art), Jiayu Pass on the Great Wall, Five-Spring Mountain and White Pagoda Mountain in Lanzhou, Maijishan Grottoes in Tianshui, Grottoes of the Bingling Temple of Yongjing, Labrang Temple of Xiahe, Xinglong Mountain of Yuzhong, Giant Buddha Monastery of Zhangye. There are 3 national scenic resorts—Echoing-Sand Mountain, Maijishan Mountain, Kongtong Mountain, 4 national famous historical and cultural cities—Dunhuang, Tianshui, Wushui, Wuwei, Zhangye, and 12 key cultural sites under state protection in Gansu. Dunhuang Mogao Grottoes was a world cultural heritage site.
 
Mogao Grottoes
Also known as the Caves of A Thousand Buddha's, the Mogao Grottoes is set into the steep cliff of Echoing sand Mountain about 25 kilometers southeast of Dunhuang City. This honeycomb of caves was constructed almost a millennium, beginning in 366, or the second year of the Emperor Jianyuan's reign of the Pre-Qin dynasty. With a length of 1600 meters from south to north, it is one of the most famous and largest grottoes in China. A total of 492 grottoes, 45000 square meters of mural s and 2400 painted statues remain now. it is a treasury, religion and folklore. In 1987, UNESCO inscribed it on the List of World Heritage.

Crescent Moon Lake
Located on the north slopes of Echoing-Sand Mountain, the Crescent Lake was formed by spring water tricking up into a depression between huge sand dunes, forming a crescent-shaped pond, hence the name. The Crescent Lake has remained free from the encroachment of sand and never dried up, and was reputed as "the Number One Spring in the Desert".
 
Jiayu Pass
Situated to the southwest of the city of the same, Jiayu Pass is the western terminal of the Ming Great Wall. Sitting on the celebrated Silk Road, the pass was also reputed as "the Magnificent Pass under Heaven" for its military position as a stronghold in ancient times. The pass was built in 1372, or the fifth year of the Hongwu Reign of the Ming dynasty, with a circumference of 733 meters, a height of 10.7 meters and an area of 33.500 square meters. The pass's lower part of the wall, six meters in height, is built of rammed earth, and the upper part is solidified with adobe. It is one of the key cultural sites under state protection.

Yumen Pass
One of the two Han-Dynasty fortifications in the West Territory, the Yumen Pass stands some 90 kilometers to the northwest of Dunhuang City, providing access from Dunhuang to the West Territory by way of the northern and middle sections of the Silk Road.